The latest sign of desperation came in the voice of the Syrian archbishop, cracking with emotion and dismay as he described the plight of more than Assyrian Christians kidnapped from their homes by ISIS in northeast Syria in late February near the Turkish border. ISIS has torched their churches, some dating back 1, years, and destroyed their ancient Bibles and relics. Their language, Aramaic, is the same language spoken by Jesus. If their communities are destroyed, the language will eventually also disappear from the face of the earth. I am convinced that the Lord will ask me an account of my commitment, my courage and my hope for this portion of his people that He entrusted to me. They are killing our history, our memory. All this culture we had and we have was supposed to help us to find understanding.
Louvre AO ; photo by Karen Radner. Sargon was not the chosen successor of his father Tiglath-pileser III BC but took the throne by force from his brother Shalmaneser V BC , the former crown prince Ululayu whose reign lasted barely five years. Sargon was already middle-aged when he came to power:
Although the ancient Assyrian “King List” records many early kings, dating back as far as the 25th century BC, the earliest Assyrian king for whom any definitive historical context exists was King Shamshi-Adad I, who ruled the city of Assur and established Assyrian control over much of .
Son of Adad-nirari II. Aramaic is made the second official language of the Assyrian empire. Ruled Babylonia direct BC. He rules in a far more direct fashion than any other Assyrian king of this century, taking personal command of the various campaigns and removing the princes who had taken so much authority upon themselves. The indirect governance of Kar-Shulmanu-Ashared as a base for Shamshi-ilu, the all-but independent Assyrian king of the west, is also ended.
Now a new Assyrian advance begins when the king invades Parsuai and turns it into an Assyrian province also known as Nikur, after its capital. This refers to Parsua , but not those of southern Iran. This is one of the northern groups which had settled in the Zagros Mountains. Nikur may not be too far to the west from the later city of Ecbatana. Possibly in the same year the Assyrians make a raid farther to the east, reaching Arazias, and a Median fortress called Zakruti.
Tiglath-Pileser demands that in the whole country of the mighty Medes as far as Mount Bikni possibly Mount Demavend close to modern Tehran , the ‘lords of townships’ should pay him regular tribute of nine metric tons of lapis lazuli and fifteen tons of bronze artefacts, an impossible order to fulfil. Once captured, the city is destroyed and its inhabitants are massacred.
Arpad is never repopulated.
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There are several versions of the quotation floating around. So, the first step is to try to find the earliest mention. He concluded that the quote was invalid, but that site has differing standards of evidence than here. He found two cites that I have been unable to beat:
Construction workers accidentally discovered a vaulted tomb dating back to the time of the Assyrian Empire in Erbil, the capital of Iraqi Kurdistan. Ten skeletons were also found at the site.
He mounted several successful military campaigns against the Babylonians, Syrians, and many others. Few could stand in the way of the Assyrian expansion. After toppling the Babylonian Empire, the Assyrians conquered the Israelites, the Phoenicians, and even parts of the mighty Egyptian Empire. In the city of Asshur he kept a hunting park in which to prey on animals.
At Nineveh, he started a botanical garden in which he planted trees and fauna gathered during his military campaigns. Their armies were highly trained and professional.
Bombs Unearth Assyrian Palace
Assyrian The Assyrian Chronicle, a cuneiform tablet that preserves the names of the annual magistrates who gave their names to the years similar to the later Athenian archon s or Roman consul s , records under the year that corresponds to — bce: A possible allusion to the same eclipse is found in the Bible: Amos was prophesying during the reign of King Jeroboam II — bce of Israel, and the eclipse would be very large throughout Israel.
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South of this lies Babylonia , named after the city of Babylon. However, in the broader sense, the name Mesopotamia has come to be used for the area bounded on the northeast by the Zagros Mountains and on the southwest by the edge of the Arabian Plateau and stretching from the Persian Gulf in the southeast to the spurs of the Anti-Taurus Mountains in the northwest.
As a result of the slow flow of the water, there are heavy deposits of silt, and the riverbeds are raised. Consequently, the rivers often overflow their banks and may even change their course when they are not protected by high dikes. In recent times they have been regulated above Baghdad by the use of escape channels with overflow reservoirs. The extreme south is a region of extensive marshes and reed swamps, hawr s, which, probably since early times, have served as an area of refuge for oppressed and displaced peoples.
Consequently, agriculture without risk of crop failure, which seems to have begun in the higher rainfall zones and in the hilly borders of Mesopotamia in the 10th millennium bce, began in Mesopotamia itself, the real heart of the civilization, only after artificial irrigation had been invented, bringing water to large stretches of territory through a widely branching network of canals. Since the ground is extremely fertile and, with irrigation and the necessary drainage, will produce in abundance, southern Mesopotamia became a land of plenty that could support a considerable population.
The cultural superiority of north Mesopotamia, which may have lasted until about bce, was finally overtaken by the south when the people there had responded to the challenge of their situation. The present climatic conditions are fairly similar to those of 8, years ago. The availability of raw materials is a historical factor of great importance, as is the dependence on those materials that had to be imported.
Both Religion and Royalty Reigned in the Assyrian City of Assur
Start Slideshow Hide Captions Kurdish and German archaeologists have uncovered evidence of ancient civilizations stretching back almost 5, years at a site near the town of Bassetki, Duhok province. It was only in May this year that the joint Kurdish-German team, which has been working at the site since , learned the name of the once flourishing city – Mardaman – which for millennia straddled the major trade routes of ancient Mesopotamia and Anatolia.
A pottery vessel, deliberately hidden under a mound of clay, was found to contain a collection of 92 cuneiform tablets.
The Syrian Army and its Assyrian militias tried to expand their territory. The SAA attacked Kurdish police officers in Qamishli and then the YPG carried out attacks against the SAA bases. The government send its own Assyrian militias and Hezbollah fighters to the front line against the Kurds.
Story highlights ISIS blew up ruins of ancient Iraqi city of Nimrud in March Terror group has targeted other sites in Iraq, home of some of the globe’s earliest civilizations CNN For centuries, the massive Assyrian city in Northern Iraq lay buried beneath the sands of time, forgotten by history. Archeologists first began excavating Nimrud — built nearly 3, years ago — in the s.
In the decades that followed, they unearthed priceless treasures from the city, including palaces adorned with unique frescoes and giant sculptures, that offered a window into Iraq’s glorious past. Last year, ISIS blew up the ancient walled city. The terror group released disturbing footage of the destruction. Militants with electric drills and sledgehammers smashed statues and tore holes in the walls.
Bulldozers razed structures to the ground. The last frame of the video captures a massive explosion and a cloud of smoke and dust. Mohammed Ibrahim, a spokesman for Iraq’s Joint operations command. Nimrud includes a town and a village adjacent to the ruins.
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Ten skeletons were also found at the site. Inside the tomb, which was constructed with baked bricks, archaeologists discovered three ceramic sarcophagi holding two skeletons. Eight other skeletons were found on the ground around the tomb, said Goran M. Amin, director of the survey department at the Directorate of Antiquities in Erbil , who is leading the team that is excavating the tomb. The team also “found more than 40 intact jars in different shapes and sizes,” Amin said in comments that have been translated into English.
The Christians in Iraq are in a modern day Holocaust. They are being forced from their homes and given options to leave on foot or die by the sword by the terrorist group ISIS.
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History Crash Course #21: Assyrian Conquest
Northern Mesopotamia, generally known as Assyria, followed a different developmental path than the apparent cultural unity that began during the Ubaid period in the south. A key difference is that Assyria had sufficient rainfall for agriculture, and irrigation was needed only for large plantations. The north also enjoyed an ample supply of building stone, and the area was close to the metal and mineral resources of Anatolia. To the north and east, in the mountainous area today known as Iraqi Kurdistan, heavy forests in ancient times yielded ample game and timber, which fueled the stoves for baking bread , kilns for making pottery and furnaces for refining metals and making weapons that helped build an empire.
Politically, this area alternated between southern domination and independence in the third millennium. The Assyrian King list describes the first rulers in this area as dwelling in tents, i.
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When did ancient months start? In the eighth century B. The day calendars had been in use for the greater part of a millennium. In many places, month lengths immediately after that change were not fixed, but were based instead upon observation of the sky. Month length at that time was simply the number of days that passed from one new lunar crescent to the next. During those years in Rome, for example, a Pontifex priest observed the sky and announced a new moon and therefore the new month to the king.
For centuries afterward Romans referred to the first day of each new month as Kalends or Kalends from their word calare to announce solemnly, to call out. The word calendar derived from this custom. This practice of starting a month at the first sighting of a new moon was observed not only by Romans but by Celts and Germans in Europe and by Babylonians and Hebrews in the Lavant. All of these peoples began their month when a young crescent was first seen in the sky. During the period when month lengths were not fixed, new moons were usually sighted after either 29 or 30 days.
If clouds obscured vision on the thirtieth day, a new month was declared to have begun. When month lengths were identical with lunations, only those that lasted 30 days were considered to be normal.
Share this article Share ‘Export of the painting has now been banned, and every effort is being made to confirm its precise origin,’ said a culture ministry spokesman. The ministry’s official website meanwhile says: Mr Turquin said the painting was so gory that the officer’s wife probably asked for it to be removed from her sight. The other disappeared without trace around years later, and would now be worth at least million pounds.
The Louvre Museum in Paris is now among world famous art institutions considering making an offer for the painting. Caravaggio was born in Milan in , and became one of the great Baroque painters, working mainly in Rome, Naples, Malta and Sicily.
Ancient Assyrian tablets, dictating social arrangements including women’s rights, dating back to 4, years have been excavated in the Central Anatolian province .
These rare objects are among the few surviving examples of the military technology of what is considered to be the first substantial military power in history. The Neo-Assyrian bronze quiver assemblage is decorated with incised scenes of winged demons, holding buckets and pine cones, pollinating the intertwined tree of life. A cuneiform inscription labels the quiver “property of Shalmaneser, king of Assyria, son of Ashur-Nasirpal, king of Assyria, son of Tukulti-Ninurta, king of Assyria.
Our example was published in , and thereafter was in the respected collection of Arthur M. The quiver is accompanied by a metal analysis confirming its authenticity and age. The Neo-Assyrian bronze helmet was originally a bimetallic, bronze and iron, pointed conical helmet of very elaborate design.
Archaeologists Find Cache of Assyrian Cuneiform Tablets in Iraq
Why the Bible Cannot be the Word of God. Did Moses “write” the Exodus account or someone else, in other words is the Exodus an eye-witness account of the events? Obviously someone else is writing about Moses and describing his activities Cf. The Philistines are portrayed as being in Canaan in the days of Abraham circa B.
Archaeology has established that the Philistines are the Pelest of Ramesside era records and they did not settle in Canaan until circa B. Catholic Exodus date or B.
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The Hittites, having failed to save Mitanni, allied with Babylon in an unsuccessful economic war against Assyria for many years. Assyria was now a large and powerful empire, and a major threat to Egyptian and Hittite interests in the region, and was perhaps the reason that these two powers, fearful of Assyrian might, made peace with one another. He then conquered Babylonia, taking Kashtiliash IV as a captive and ruled there himself as king for seven years, taking on the old title “King of Sumer and Akkad” first used by Sargon of Akkad.
Tukulti-Ninurta I thus became the first Akkadian speaking native Mesopotamian to rule the state of Babylonia, its founders having been foreign Amorites, succeeded by equally foreign Kassites. Tukulti-Ninurta petitioned the god Shamash before beginning his counter offensive. The victorious Assyrians demolished the walls of Babylon, massacred many of the inhabitants, pillaged and plundered his way across the city to the Esagila temple, where he made off with the statue of Marduk. In the process he defeated the Elamites , who had themselves coveted Babylon.
He also wrote an epic poem documenting his wars against Babylon and Elam.